Baby health

Wondering who you turn to for questions about your baby’s health? Who checks that your baby is growing as they should? What about when they’re sick?

Photo by Kelly Sikkema on Unsplash

In this section, we’ll look at:

Basic principles of health care in Belgium

Under Belgium’s ‘health insurance fund’ system (the ‘mutuelles’/’mutualiteiten’) you are entitled to subsidised healthcare provided you are paying social security contributions (through working on a Belgian contract or being self-employed), or are the non-working family member of someone who is.

Unlike in many countries, in Belgium there are no restrictions on which healthcare provider(s) you can see to be entitled to subsidised care, provided that person is registered with the National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance (INAMI / RIZIV). For example, you can see a doctor in your own commune, or 100km away; in a hospital setting, or in private practice.

You can even arrange to see a specialist doctor yourself, e.g. pediatrician, gynaecologist, urologist, although note that your mutuelle will reimburse more of the cost if you have been referred by a general doctor.

The fees that a healthcare professional charge depend on whether or not they are ‘conventionné / ‘geconventioneerd’. A healthcare professional who is ‘conventioned’ adheres (either fully or e.g. on fixed days) to the fee schedule fixed in the convention with the mutuelle.

Your mutuelle will reimburse you the same amount for e.g. a visit to a pediatrician, irrespective of whether the care provider is conventioned, so your final ‘out-of-pocket’ costs will be lower if you choose a conventioned doctor.

Global Medical File

With individuals in Belgium are free to see any doctor, it can be difficult to ensure continuity of care and centralisation of medical records.

To encourage patients to centralise everything with one general doctor, it is possible to agree to have a Global Medical File (‘Dossier Médical Global (DMG’ / ‘Globaal Medisch Dossier (GMD’).

To have such a file, you pay a yearly fee of €31 which is completely reimbursed by your mutuelle. Once you have a DMG, a larger proportion of the cost of visit to your general doctor will be reimbursed.

As well as saving you money, having a DMG also ensures better care, since all records of tests and exams will be in one place, giving a better overview of your health and situation.

Free well-baby visits from the ONE/Kind en Gezin

In Belgium, state-run family agencies Office de la Naissance et de l’Enfance (ONE) and Kind en Gezin run free ‘well baby’ clinics and vaccination programmes.

If you give birth in a Belgian hospital, a representative from one of these agencies usually visits to explain the services on offer and take your contact details – a social worker from your local ONE/Kind en Gezin may then be in touch soon after you leave hospital.

‘Well-baby’ checks are offered free of charge at local ONE/Kind en Gezin consultation points (in urban areas there are many centres, while in less accessible areas, mobile clinics are sometimes used).

At these visits, your baby can be weighed and measured, and you have an appointment with a paediatrician and social worker who can answer any questions you may have about your baby’s health and development. If you follow the vaccination programme recommended in Belgium, then vaccinations can also be carried out for free at these appointments.

You will receive a ‘Carnet de l’Enfant’ / ‘Boekje van het kind’ (Book for your child), where all medical details, vaccinations etc. are recorded.

There is no obligation to take advantage of the ONE/Kind en Gezin services. If you prefer, you can centralise all your baby’s care with a pediatrician – or in most cases with your family doctor.

Well-baby checks in daycare

Many daycares arrange to have a team from the ONE/Kind en Gezin visit them to carry out well-baby checks, and vaccinations if necessary.

Again, you are not obliged to take advantage of this.


Wondering what vaccinations your baby needs in Belgium? Under Belgian law, vaccination against polio is mandatory and you will need to show proof that your child has been vaccinated against polio before they can attend daycare/school. Vaccinations against other illnesses are commonly given and you may need to have your child vaccinated against these to be able to attend daycare or school.

For daycare overseen by the Office de le Naissance et de l’Enfance (ONE), you will need to show proof that your baby is vaccinated against diphtheria, whooping cough, type b Haemophilus influenzae, measles, rubella (German measles) and mumps.

The website features a handy vaccination calendar based on Belgian recommendations. It also advises in general on vaccinations for children and adults, both when in Belgium and when travelling.

Where do I go for vaccinations?

You can have your child vaccinated:

  • at the ONE/Kind en Gezin, as mentioned above. These agencies offer free vaccination programmes, based on the recommendations of the Superior Health Counsel of Belgium. If you choose to take advantage of this programme, you do not need to acquire the vaccinations yourself – the ONE/Kind en Gezin paediatricians keep the necessary vaccinations in stock.
  • by your paediatrician / family doctor. If you choose to do this, you will need to get a prescription for the vaccines from your doctor, and get them yourself in a pharmacy.

Paediatrician or family doctor?

In Belgium, is it not uncommon to take children to a paediatrician for check-ups, when they are ill or for vaccinations, and you do not need a referral to do so.

However, unless your baby is very ill, then your family doctor may be a handier and cheaper option.

  • A pediatrician who applies the ‘conventioned’ fees will only charge around €35-€40. However, few pediatricians are ‘conventionné, and a visit typically costs around €50, but can be higher.

    The mutuelle reimburses a fixed amount, irrespective of whether or not the pediatrician is ‘conventionné’.
  • A family doctor who applies the ‘conventioned’ fees will typically charge €26. Most family doctors are ‘conventionné’, but not all.

    The amount the mutuelle reimburses will depend on whether or not you have a ‘Global Medical File’, and is again a fixed amount irrespective of whether or not the doctor is conventionné.

Note: If you are really curious to know the exact amounts charged and mutuelle reimbursements for each distinct code on your medical bill, you can find this on the website of the National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance (INAMI-RIZIV).

It is also worth remembering that a paediatrician will probably be harder to reach outside of regular working hours, and will usually not carry out home visits.

And while some family doctors are happy to see babies and young children, others may prefer not to see babies under the age of 3 or 6 months, or even one year. Ask your own doctor how he/she operates.

Remember that you can have free well-baby visits and vaccinations with the ONE/Kind en Gezin.

How do I find a paediatrician or family doctor?

You can’t beat a personal recommendation for a paediatrician or family, but what if you don’t actually know who to ask?

Below are some of the wonderful Facebook groups that you may be able to access:

You might also find a paediatrician or family doctor via:

  • the hospital where you give birth.
  • a website like where you can search for various types of doctor by post code.

How do I find an on-duty paediatrician/doctor and pharmacy?

If you can’t reach your own doctor or paediatrician, you can call the relevant central number for Brussels

If your own doctor is not available and you live anywhere in the 19 Brussels communes, you can call +32 (0)2 201 22 22 at any time of day or night.

A qualified operator will take your call and will either:

  • send an on-duty doctor to your house/apartment as soon as possible; or

  • send you to a ‘poste médicaux de garde (PMG)’ / ‘huisartsenwachtpost’ (‘urgent care’ that is not serious enough to warrant a trip to hospital emergency department).

For more information about this service, and for details of who to contact if you live outside Brussels, see here.

Subsidised childcare if your child is too sick to go to daycare/school

Most mutuelles offer a childcare service if your child (from 3 months to 14 years) is too sick to go to daycare/school. Subject to certain conditions and availability, a qualified childminder will come to your home to look after your child.

Note that you will need to have a doctor’s note stating that your child needs to be looked after.

The cost is around €3 per hour, with a maximum of 10 hours per day, and 3 days per illness, and you can usually have 18 days per year per child. Check with your own mutuelle for details.

The childminder only looks after your child – no other domestic tasks can be requested. In Brussels, demand for this service is very high, so you need to contact your mutuelle as soon as you know you will need the service.

Depending on availability, it may be possible to arrange care for the following day.

First aid classes for parents

Following an infant first aid course is an easy way to gain knowledge and skills that can help you keep your children safe and healthy.

  • First aid trainer Kate Ellwood runs ‘First Aid for Parents’ courses (in English) online and at both:

  • The Belgian Red Cross runs pediatric first aid courses – Croix Rouge courses French and Rode Kruis courses in Dutch.

Neonatal care, emergency departments and children’s hospitals

See Birth > Preterm birth.

The website Hospichild (only in French) is a wonderful resource for any parent whose child needs to be hospitalised. Use Google Chrome’s automatic translation function to view the site in your language.

Also worth mentioning are:

Other useful contacts

Anti-poison centre

If you know or think your child has injested or come into contact with a hazardous substance:

Main helpline: +32 (0)70 245 245 
Website: (French) / (Dutch)

Burns centre

Main helpline: +32 (0)71 448 000

Hôpital Militaire Reine Astrid, Rue Bruyn 1, 1120 Bruxelles 
Tel: +32 (0)2 264 48 48 
Website: (French or Dutch)